The Twelve Repentances are advanced tests given to the initiate who is working in the Second Mountain. These tests are given in order to prove their mastery. Each Repentance is related with a different sephirah (aeon) of the Tree of Life (Kabbalah).
“‘O Light of lights, I have transgressed in the twelve aeons, and have descended from them; wherefor have I uttered the twelve repentances, [one] for each aeon. Now, therefore, O Light of lights, forgive me my transgression, for it is exceedingly great, because I have abandoned the regions of the height and have come to dwell in the regions of the chaos.’" - Pistis Sophia 57
"The Twelve Repentances of Pistis Sophia are related with the Twelve Hours of Apollonius, the Twelve Works of Hercules, the Twelve Aeons. In these Twelve Repentances, the qualification of the Eight Great Initiations of the Fire take place, as well as four more works following the Resurrection of the Intimate Christ within the Bodhisattva. It is clear that every fallen Bodhisattva descends from the Thirteenth Aeon and falls into the Chaos. Undoubtedly, Pistis Sophia must work in the Chaos, in order to reascend to the Thirteenth Aeon. The Thirteenth Repentance of Pistis Sophia belongs to the Thirteenth Aeon. Unquestionably, the initiate must work in each one of the Thirteen Aeons, if he wants the final liberation. The First Aeon is Malkuth, which is here and in the sub- merged Abyss. The Second Aeon is Yesod, which is in our sexual organs and in the fourth dimension, within which is the Terrestrial Paradise, the Ethereal World. The Third Aeon is the Astral World, the Sephirah Hod. The Fourth Aeon is Netzach, the Mental World. The Fifth Aeon is Tiphereth, the Causal World. The Sixth Aeon is Geburah, the Buddhic or Intuitional World. The Seventh Aeon is the World of Atman, the Ineffable One, the region of Chesed or Gedulah. The Eight Aeon is Binah, the region of the Holy Spirit, the world of Shiva, the Third Logos. The Ninth Aeon is Chokmah, the region of the Logos, the Cosmic Christ. The Tenth Aeon is Kether, the region of the Ancient of Days. The Eleventh Aeon is the Region of Ain Soph Aur, the Third Great Aspect of the Absolute. The Twelfth Aeon is the region of Ain Soph, the Second Aspect of the Absolute. The Thirteenth Aeon is the region of the Ain, the Unmanifested Absolute. Each one of the Thirteen Aeons must be Self-realized within ourselves. Based on conscious works and voluntary sufferings, Pistis Sophia must Self-realize herself in these Thirteen Aeons." - Samael Aun Weor, The Gnostic Bible: The Pistis Sophia Unveiled