1. The Roman name of the god of war (Greek Ares)
2. The name of the red planet, the fifth planet from the Sun. Scientists say it is the fourth planet, but the fourth planet was destroyed, and its remains are found in the asteroid belt between the Earth and Mars.
3. In esotericism, Mars is the fifth of the seven planets.
"Adam-Jehovah, Brahma and Mars are, in one sense, identical; they are all symbols for primitive or initial generative powers for the purposes of human procreation. Adam is red, and so also are Brahma-Viraj and Mars -- god and planet. Water is the blood of the Earth; therefore, all these names are connected with Earth and Water. "It takes earth and water to create a human soul," says Moses. Mars is identical with Kartikeya God of War (in one sense) -- which god is born of the Sweat of Siva, Siva Gharmaja and the Earth. In the Mahabharata he is shown as born without the intervention of a woman. And he is also called "Lohita," the red, like Adam, and the other "first men." Hence, the author of "The Source of Measures" is quite right in thinking that Mars (and all the other gods of like attributes), "being the god of war and of bloodshed, was but a secondary idea flowing out of the primary one of shedding of blood in conception for the first time." Hence Jehovah became later a fighting god, "Lord of Hosts," and one who commands war. He is the aggressive Zodh -- or Cain by permutation who slew his (female) "brother," whose "blood crieth from the ground," the Earth having opened her mouth to receive the blood." - H.P. Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine (1888)
As a planetary influence, Mars is related to: "Wars, military matters, police matters, quarrels, leaders, works related to money, big businesses, matters related with judges, and with tribunals, etc." - Samael Aun Weor, Manual of Practical Magic. Mars is associated with the metal iron and the color red. The planet and the ray (energetic influence) of Mars are governed by the Logos Samael.
"My rule is over the planet Maadim (Mars)." —Samael in ספר הזהר Zohar 19.8.142
"Ares, exceeding in strength, chariot-rider, golden-helmed, doughty in heart, shield-bearer, Saviour of cities, harnessed in bronze, strong of arm, unwearying, mighty with the spear, O defender of Olympos, father of warlike Nike (Victory), ally of Themis, stern governor of the rebellious, leader of the righteous men, sceptred King of manliness, who whirl your fiery sphere [the planet Mars] among the planets in their sevenfold courses through the aither wherein your blazing steeds ever bear you above the third firmament of heaven; hear me, helper of men, giver of dauntless youth! Shed down a kindly ray from above upon my life, and strength of war, that I may be able to drive away bitter cowardice from my head and crush down the deceitful impulses of my soul. Restrain also the keen fury of my heart which provokes me to tread the ways of blood-curdling strife. Rather, O blessed one, give you me boldness to abide within the harmless laws of peace, avoiding strife and hatred and the violent fiends of death." —Homeric Hymn 8 to Ares (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic B.C.)