It is written:

"And Elohim said, Let us make Adam in our image, after our likeness.... So Elohim created Adam in his own image, in the image of Elohim created he them; male and female created he them.” - Genesis 1: 26, 27

“And” is ו Vav, the central nervous system. “Elohim” is plural, it means, God and Goddess. “Said” indicates the throat, Daath. “Let us,” indicate Male and Female, right and left, the systole diastole of the heart, אדם Adam, in the ו Vav, central nervous system, the tree of life. “Our image” is the “Alpha” or א Aleph of אל El and אלה Elah, their fiery power reflected in השמים HaShamayim, in the throat, דעת Daath, the waters of Heaven. “Our likeness” is the אד Od and אב Ob in the Omega, the fiery power of heaven that descends from א Aleph, the oxygen in דם Dam, the blood of the heart, אדם Adam, and is distilled, extracted, refined as sperm and ovum, the seed or semen, the המים HaMayim, the genital waters of מין Min, sex.

Ida and Pingala,אד Od and אב Ob, are rooted in Omega, the testicles or ovaries. Alchemy relates to the Tree of Good and Evil that, in the Bible is called, “the Tree of Knowledge.”  Alchemy is the science of transmutation: the way in which we change one element into another, transform or as we say “mutate.”

For אלהים Elohim doth know that in the day you eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and you shall be as אלהים Elohim, knowing good and evil." - Genesis 3: 5

Let us concentrate on the Earth. We live on this planet which is a living organism, and indeed, in order to sustain our lives, this planet transmutes; this planet is transforming forces all the time. When we visualize the mineral kingdom of the planet, we delve into its inner layers, and we find the metals, minerals, etc, which are the nervous system of the planet. Metals, minerals, and all the elements that exist within the inner layers of the earth relate to the nervous system that channels electricity, solar light. This solar light is attracted mainly in the mineral kingdom by the oceans, lakes, and rivers. The water itself is that element related with the cosmic-common trogoautoegocrat law; that is, the reciprocal nourishment of the whole, or to swallow and to be swallowed, eat and be eaten. This law is a law of energetic exchange.

Water—the oceans, seas, rivers, etc—is the main element that transforms solar energy. The waters of the Earth transfer the solar energy into the inner layers of metals and minerals of the Earth, that which we call the mineral kingdom. In this same way, if we observe our own nervous system, it channels that energy in order to feed our physical body. The physical body itself is similar to the earth: it channels forces. However,the processes are different; the Earth, as a living organism, has different organs with which it transforms different type of energies.

For instance, the sexual organ of the Earth is the plant kingdom, which is directly related with its lungs. Indeed, this is similar to our physical bodies. When we learn about sexual energy, we know that the sexual force is related to the respiratory system. This is why, when we teach pranayama, we show how to take advantage of the energy of the earth and the physical body by using the nostrils, the nose. Indeed, the nostrils, the respiratory system, etc, are connected to the sexual glands, the testicles and ovaries. In a similar way, the plant kingdom of this planet Earth is connected to its respiratory system. The Earth breathes through the plants.

The plants are not like us, as we are in this physical body: standing on our feet. The head of the plant is actually the root of the plant that goes down into the Earth; its sexual organs are above, what we call fruits, flowers. The sexual organ of the planet Earth transforms the solar energy through the plant kingdom, and of course places the oxygen—the outcome of all this transformation, this alchemy—in the atmosphere, into the oxygen that we breathe.

However, it is not only the mineral and plant kingdoms that are the organs of the Earth: there is also the animal kingdom. The animal kingdom relates with the spleen. The spleen is that organ located in the left side of our physical body. The spleen is that organ that attracts the solar light during the time when we are sleeping. That solar light goes into the nervous system and charges the physical body during the period of sleep. In a similar way, the planet Earth has its own spleen. That spleen is related with the animals. Each type of animal has different psychological and physiological traits, that attract different forces, solar forces. Not only from this solar system, but from others as well; other galaxies, from the megalocosmos, the infinite.

So, the spleen of the Earth is that animal kingdom. However, within that animal kingdom, we also find another kingdom erroneously called “humanity.” We call it “animality” because indeed we are intellectual animals, who still belong to the animal kingdom; that is, we are merely animals with intellect. It is very rare to find a human being. This humanity, a term we use out of respect, is related to the liver. The liver of the Earth is this “humanity” that transforms certain, particular forces; but, if we observe the liver, underneath it is another organ that is called the gall bladder. The liver is the largest organ in the body and the gall bladder is underneath, and related to the liver itself. Both liver and gall bladder relate to the forces of the Moon, lunar forces, that also are in the universe, because the planet earth feeds itself, nourishes itself, with the lunar forces.

These lunar forces are related with the inner layers of the Earth as well. The Earth has two types of moons. They call them the “white moon” and the “black moon,” both of which are related to this humanity. Traditions among the kabbalists state that this humanity has two wives: the white moon and the black moon. The white moon is that which relates to the spleen, that element that projects the solar light in our organism. The gall bladder is the black moon, within which we have the bile, which is that bitter element necessary for our organism. In this same way, we have to visualize the planet earth.

The liver, this humanity, is huge, but very polluted. In other planets of our solar system, the liver of those planets is not as polluted as this planet. If you remember, we stated that the liver reflects the power of the father in the head, that which is the primary force among the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. The Father reflects his kingdom in the liver.

We stated in other lectures that we find שטן Satan in the liver, which is in reality nothing other than an animal force; it is that which impels the sexual force in animals, whether they are irrational or intellectual like us. The difference is that the irrational animals of nature obey its laws, and they reproduce according to its laws. On the contrary, we, the intellectual animals, do not obey that cycle. We exercise the sexual act according to our own whim, according to our desires. That is why when we state that this root race that is called the Aryan race relates to Aries, to Samael, we acknowledge that Samael, Mars, relates to the liver. In Kabbalah, we say that Geburah relates to the liver. In order for the liver, this humanity, to transform the lunar forces, it is necessary for the activity of Lucifer (light giver), or as we say, Satan (שטן adversary).

In ancient times, when the forces of the moon were necessary for this planet, they implanted in the Lemurian humanity the Kundabuffer Organ, which is the tail of שטן Satan. This organ crystallizes, channels the lunar forces. The Kundabuffer Organ was eradicated from humanity, but the evil consequences from that organ still remain within the psyche of all of us. Psychologically speaking, we have two moons: Nahemah and Lilith, or the White Moon and the Black Moon, that relate to these organs that we are naming here, the spleen, liver, and gall bladder.

The liver, of course, is the reflection of the forces of the kingdom of the Father in heaven. All the strength that we call willpower in sexuality relates to שטן Satan and acts in the liver. All of us present here would like to be the heart of this planet. It would be very good if for instance we heard that this humanity is the heart of the planet; unfortunately it is not. This humanity is the liver. In order to be the heart, we have to work with the superior forces, with the monad, the spirit. That is precisely the gnostic doctrine. It goes directly into the heart. We need to change our nature. Instead of being a liver, we need to become a heart. That is the alchemical aspect of this matter, because the heart is that wise organ that takes the impure blood of the liver and purifies it, thanks to the oxygen that enters through our lungs.

That exchange of forces in our organism, in the heart, is what we call alchemy. There are humanities that are “hearts” of their particular planet, but those humanities’ center of gravity is situated in the spirit, in the monad. That is true meaning of the word “hu-man”: hum (the spirit) united with the manas (mind), the Hum-Man. Such humanities exist, but if you observe the Tree of Life, here we find for instance Tiphereth which relates to the heart and the sun. So, when we center ourselves in the heart, we center in what is called the “Son of Man,” the solar force that controls the lower Sephiroth: Netzach, Hod, Yesod, and Malkuth, which relates to the four creatures of Alchemy, symbolized in the Tetragrammaton or the picture of Ekeziel, which is the star of David.

  • Netzach is the eagle
  • Hod is the lion
  • Yesod is the man
  • Malkuth is the Bull

These should be controlled by Tiphereth, the heart. As always, we insist that we have to concentrate in our heart because the heart is Tiphereth, which is precisely the apex, the point of the triangle that controls the inferior forces or the inferior quaternary which physically, is

  • Netzach the liver
  • Hod the spleen
  • Yesod the sexual organs
  • Malkuth the physical body

The triangle above, Tiphereth, Geburah, and Chesed, is the triangle of the monad. The triangle of the spirit. We always stated that the monad is a trio of spirit, divine soul, and human soul. So we must concentrate in Tiphereth, which in Theosophy, it is called superior manas (mind), or superior man. This man, this mind, manas, is assisted by Geburah (the divine soul) and Chesed (the divine spirit). This is how the monad starts the initiation through the heart. In Tiphereth, we find the heroes. Tiphereth is ruled by the sun, by Michael, he who is like God.

Michael has to control the inferior Sephiroth, which are related with the dragon. In the Bible, these four Sephiroth are related with the lower abdomen. This is what the Bible called, “Behemoth,” whose strength is in the belly. There is also another, called Leviathan. Leviathan and Behemoth are related with the lower abdomen, in any creature. Those are the forces that the Bible calls, שטן Shatan or Satan; animal forces that everybody has within.

Above in Tiphereth we find Michael, the hero, the solar hero, the conqueror of the dragon and his legions. Those heros have many names in different myths: Perseus is one of them. All of those heroes are children of Zeus, Jupiter, the father of all the Gods. This is the transformation that all of us need to go through, and that can only happen if we allow the Nous atom, Michael, the son of man, which is in the left ventricle of the heart, to control our own animality.

Oedipus and the Sphinx 1864Remember Oedipus Rex, who tried to conquer the Sphinx. If we investigate the Sphinx, we see that it relates to the same symbols:

  • The paws of lion in front of Sphynx
  • the hoofs of the ox on the back of the Spyhnx
  • the face of a human
  • and the wings of the eagle.

The Sphinx symbolizes the mystery of the human being, the mystery of the man, that we get if we defeat it. Many have heard about the Sphinx, a strange animal which you need to conquer. Indeed this elemental does exist in the superior dimensions, but the meaning of defeating the Sphinx is to take control of the elements related with the four creatures of Ezekiel.

  • The fire, the lion
  • The water, the man
  • The air, the eagle
  • The earth, the bull

This, in order to become kings and queens of nature. It is only through the heart that we can control these four creatures that in Hebrew are called, Chaioth Ha Kadosh, “Holy creatures.” They are holy when we control them, right now they are not holy. We are slaves to these four creatures, these four elements, and it is because all of the strength is centered in the liver, in Behemoth and down there, in the Leviathan; they control us. That is why we have to enter into the knowledge of the Tree of Alchemy, the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, because this is the way in which we can take advantage of these forces for good or for bad. We need to take advantage of these forces, and go beyond good and evil; we need to be like God, knowing good and evil.

The Bible states in Genesis, “when Adam and Eve ate from the tree of good and evil, that יהוה אלהים Jehovah Elohim said, ‘behold Adam is like one of us (like the אלהים Elohim), knowing good and evil.”

When you study the Bible, you discover that Elohim אלהים is a Hebrew word that means “gods and goddesses.” Those gods and goddesses exist in the universe; they are those beings or entities that we call angels, archangels, potentates, powers, divas, solar masters. They exist, but they relate to the heart. They control nature where they live and they live in the planets or stars. There they are the heart of those planets. In the heart we find the soul, the psyche, the superior manas united with the spirit. They have different hierarchical degrees; they control nature. They control the mineral kingdom, plant kingdom, the animal kingdom, and also the intellectual animal kingdoms. They are called cosmocreators.

This word “cosmocreator” in English means “a creator of cosmoses, of universes.” The Bible begins with the phrase, “In the beginning, God created” which in Hebrew is, Bereshith Bara Elohim בראשית ברא אלהים. However, it should be translated as “In the beginning the Gods and Goddesses created,” because Elohim is plural, not singular. Bera ברא means “creation.” This is the world of Briah. Those Elohim of the world Briah have control over nature; they are true human beings in the complete sense of the word, that live not only on this planet, but on other planets. When we said that they live on this planet it is because in this planet Earth we have few cosmocreators, enough only to count on the fingers of the hand. In other humanities, cosmocreators exist in the whole humanity; millions of them. Humanities that are in paradise. They assist other planets, they travel into space in order to help other humanities like our “humanity,” that is really bellicose, related with the liver.

Our humanity has no control of themselves, because their psyche is very degenerated. The psyche, the soul, that should be in the heart is not in the heart, it is in the liver and this is precisely what is happening on planet Earth. This humanity, the liver, is polluted. As a consequence, it is polluting the other organs: the animals by killing animals, destroying the forests, polluting the oceans... see how the intellectual animal, the liver of this planet, is digging and digging and taking the blood of the Earth. The blood of course, which is called petroleum, oil, has a lot of solar force that is utilized in order to impel cars, airplanes, rockets, etc. This is the blood of the planet, and we are just digging and digging and spilling it in the oceans. Oil and water do not combine.

When you take the blood of the Earth out, you are blood-shedding the Earth. That is precisely one of the topics we need to understand. Blood-shed is related with bile, related with the gall bladder. In the gall bladder, we find hatred, killing, which is Lilith in us, the dark moon. The Bible says

“Whosoever sheds - Dam H'Adam דם האדם - Adam's blood, by Adam shall his blood be shed: for in the image of Elohim made he Adam.”  - Genesis 9: 6

This is because the word Adam אדם means “the breath (א Aleph) of (El אל) God within the (dam דם) blood.” Aleph א, is the breath of (El אל) God, a symbol of the oxygen. And Dam דם in Hebrew is “blood.” So, when you say “Adam” you are saying the “breath of God in the heart,” which is the vehicle of Ath-את in the blood. But, when you shed the blood of the heart, you are a blood-shedding person and as a consequence, you are committing a great crime. This is related to the Tree of Good and Evil, the Tree of Knowledge.

Now listen, alchemically speaking, semen is distilled, extracted, refined, from about 80 drops of blood; thus, it takes about 80 drops of blood to make one drop of semen, therefore, if we spill the semen, we are shedding the blood of Adam.

"And יהוה אלהים Jehovah Elohim said, Behold, Adam has become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever: Therefore Jehovah Elohim יהוה אלהים sent him (Adam) forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken.

So (through the orgasm), Adam drove out Ath-את (from the heart); and he (יהוה אלהים Jehovah Elohim) placed at (his heart, Tiphereth) the east of (Yesod) the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which (in the blood through the circulatory system) turned every way (in his physicality during the sexual act), to keep the way of (the central nervous system) the tree of life.” - Genesis 3: 22-24

William Blakes Cain and Abel

There are three great sins related with the Tree of Knowledge or Tree of Alchemy that we have to learn.

  • The first is “idolatry”
  • The second is “Bloodshed”
  • and the Third is “Incest”

All of us are guilty of them. What is idolatry? It is: “You should not have any other Elohim beside me, or in front of me, or next to me.” That is a commandment given to the Lemurian humanity. How do you place an idol, another Elohim, or another God or Gods inside of yourself? You do it through the liver. The psyche, the soul of the planet Earth, transforms the solar light beautifully through the plant kingdom and when you smell a flower or rose, you sense how beautiful is the scent of that rose, or any other flower; you see how the trees are full with fruit. In the spring and summer you see that. That is the sexual organ of the planet. When we eat from those fruits, we get what are called vitamins. Vitamins are just solar energy in different scales or levels. When you enter and satisfy the sexual urge as an animal, then you are sending the solar energy that your body produced to the satisfaction of desire, which is centered in the liver. You are not doing what the planet does, transmuting that forces and producing a nice smell. We stink like animals! The animals spill the sexual force, the solar energy, that is located in the sexual organs.

As a consequence, because of the orgasm or the spams for the satisfaction of desire through the animal body, we create within us what we call lust. Lust is precisely that idol that we created in the beginning and that everybody worships. People say “I am not an idol worshiper!” Anyone who spills the sexual energy like an animal is an idol worshiper; they are worshiping that element that is called lust, that everybody has inside. When we covet the sensation of orgasm or spasm, the animal desire, that coveting, is the power of Leviathan, another idol. Through coveting, we are always acting in this physical world, we just want to satisfy desires, which are located in the belly. That is the power of behemoth. When that coveting is frustrated because we cannot satisfy it, then anger arises which is frustrated desired.


"Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee; he eats grass (solar energy) as an ox. Lo now, his strength is in his loins, and his force is in the navel of his belly.”

"Can you draw out Leviathan with a fishhook? Or press down his tongue with a cord. Can you put a rope in his nose or pierce his jaw with a hook?” - Job 40: 15, 16; 41: 1, 2

Anger, coveting, lust, are the three doors that send us to hell or to Klipoth. To the lunar way of devolution. This humanity is centered in these three sins or three negative forces.

  • Lust
  • Coveting
  • Anger

When someone is angry, it is because he is frustrated, that anger arises, and the solar forces, atomic energies used by that anger feeds the animality that we have within. In that moment, a moment of anger, we are not worshiping God, we are worshiping an idol called anger.

When we covet the neighbor’s wife, the neighbor’s spouse, we are worshiping another idol. And when we kill, we are centered in Lilith. Bloodshed is related to the gall bladder. For instance, when you embarrass your friend in front of another person, blood rushes to their face, that’s called bloodshed because you are embarrassing the person. Who doesn’t do that? This is a low level of bloodshed.The worst level is when someone kills another person and sheds their blood; when they allowed the bile of the gall bladder to take over his self. To kill is an art in this day and age:there are movies where they present killing as an art. They worship that idol.

So this is the relationship of the gall bladder with the liver. This is why we have sicknesses of the liver, because we have the psyche and elements within that destroy the gall bladder and liver. Stones in the gall bladder (gallstones) are very common. In this area we have the lower appetites, gluttony, fear, etc.

The spleen, however, attracts the solar force during the night and transfers it into the nervous system in order for the physical body to be charged again with energy necessary for us to work the next day, in order for us to satisfy desires. This is what we do. That is why it is stated that spleen is the source of adultery. What is adultery? This means the “adulteration” of the solar force; that, instead of going to the spirit—as Abel, the son of Adam and Eve was doing, performing the sacrifice of the solar force in order to nourish the spirit—we follow Cain who is a killer and an adulterer.

The spleen takes the vibration of the liver and commits adultery; it adulterates the solar light with the animal appetites of the liver, by sucking the black blood. The liver does not purify the blood, the heart does it. The liver takes anything from Nephesh, the animal kingdom. The solar light that we find in nature that entices our sight—or as the Bible says, “that is pleasant to the eyes, pleasant to the sight”—that solar light that is in the flowers, in the trees with fruits, which is in the beautiful woman and the handsome man when they are teenagers, flowing through their organs and showing in their skin, that solar light is the light of Adonia אדני. It is what in Hebrew we call, Adonai my lord. Adonia אדני is a feminine name. Mother nature that takes the solar force of the father, of the sun, in order to give life.

But what are we doing with mother nature? Are we following and loving Mother Nature? Or are we taking the energy, the solar light, in order to satisfy animal desires? That is called adultery and also incest. Because we take that energy of Mother Nature in order to satisfy our own animality. We commit incest like Oedipus the king, who married his own mother. But that mother is the mother nature, Adonia אדני, that we should love. She is our first love. The book of Revelation states:

“Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee, because thou hast left thy first love. Remember therefore from whence thou art fallen, and repent, and do the first works; or else I will come unto thee quickly, and will remove thy candlestick out of his place, except thou repent.” - Revelation 2: 4, 5

Do not forget your first love and from where you come from, how you fell. Your first love is the energy of love, the energy of mother nature, the solar light. That is why it is stated that those who adulterate commit incest.

There are 15 types of incest. Why 15? Because the letter Iod (י) of the holy name Iod-Hei-Vav-Hei יהוה has the value of ten. And the letter Hei ה of the holy name Iod-Hei-Vav-Hei יהוה has the value of 5. When we add these two letters together, Iod and Hei, we have the word Jah יה in Hebrew. Jah יה is father-mother: Iod י is the father, Hei ה is the mother. However, the devil goes in between them, and that devilis the animality, which is Lilith and which ruins the whole creation. This is how our entire psyche, all of our bodies are ruined, because of the devil, 15.

This type of incest is related with the spleen and the ruination of this planet comes from us because it is the liver that is the causa casorum of all of these problems that we have. Karma, cause and effect, acts through the liver. In the liver we have the cause and effects of our previous defects, vices, errors, sins. And that is why everybody is sick in the liver and instead of healing the liver by annihilating those psychological elements of the liver and gall bladder, what do we do? We fortify those psychological elements and the liver gets worse. It is very easy to see how this humanity suffers in the lower abdomen with different types of sicknesses which are infecting the other organs, including even the brain. So all of these three aspects:

  • Idolatry
  • Bloodshed
  • Incest

expressed through the:

  • Liver
  • Gall Bladder
  • Spleen

are related with the Tree of Alchemy, the Tree of Good and Evil, the Tree of Knowledge, and that is why we are suffering. We not only hurt ourselves physically in our psyche, but we are hurting other organs of the planets, the animals, plants and oceans. We are producing more karma than which that we already have.

That is why when we enter into the mysteries of יהוה, the Tetragrammaton we have to know how to conjure the negativity of the liver by saying:

Elohim, do battle for me in the name of the Tetragrammaton!

By invoking the superior forces of Geburah "Elohim, do battle for me in the name of יהוה, the Tetragrammaton! " The superior forces of אלהים Elohim are the forces of יהוה, the Tetragrammaton. We find in the right hand of the pentagram יהוה Iod-Hei-Vav-Hei, the holy name of Elohim, this holy name in Greek is the Tetragrammaton. When we want to fight against the negative forces of the liver, which want to attack us physically or internally, we have to say אלהים Elohim, do battle for me in the name of יהוה, the Tetragrammaton! The forces of יהוה Iod-Hei-Vav-Hei are precisely above Geburah, because יהוה אלהים Jehovah Elohim is above the Seraphim of Geburah, which are the forces of Mars ♂.

We have to know how to polarize ourselves with the positive forces of Geburah. This word Geburah brings into our mind Geburah-El, Gibur-El, Gabriel. Who is Gabriel, Gibur-El? This is the male force of אלהים Elohim that obeys the forces of יהוה, the Tetragrammaton. That is why in the conjuration of the seven we say:

In the name of Gabriel, may Adonai command thee, and drive thee hence, Bael!

Meaning, “In the name of Gabriel,”  the male force of אלהים Elohim Gibor, “may Adonia,” the feminine aspect of the force of יהוה Iod-Hei-Vav-Hei, which is in the Earth, represented by the star of David in the pentagram, drive thee hence, Bael!


That part of the pentagram which reads “TON” relates to this other graphic that we are showing here where we write Adonia. We have here the star of David with the four creatures, the Chaioth forces of nature, which are control by the Divine Mother Adonia אדני; she controls the Chaioth forces of nature. That is why the Divine Mother Adonia אדני is called Mary in Christianity. Mary receives the visitation from the angel Gabriel because the angel Gabriel is the positive male force of God, which is related with Yesod, the sexual organ. Remember: Yesod relates to the moon, and the moon relates to Gabriel. The moon is related with procreation, with birth, so this is how we understand the annunciation with the angel Gabriel, the annunciation of Geburah, the Seraphic forces of God, which comes from above, from the Holy Spirit, in order to fecundate the virgin Mater, matter, mother, in the spiritual way. That is why you find that the angel Gabriel is always visiting the great initiates. John the Baptist was also announced by the angel Gabriel. Mohammed was taught by the angel Gabriel because Geburah-el, the superior forces of Mars, are the male forces, the solar force, that fecundate our matter, when we know Alchemy, when we know the mystery of Daath.

Remember, that every planet has two forces: positive and negative. The positive force of Mars is represented by Elohim Gibor, or Elohim Geburah, or Elohim Gabriel, Gibor. But the negative aspect is Andrameleck, who is a Hasnamuss; someone who steals the forces of nature for the satisfaction of his own animality, which is what we find in this planet earth's present humanity; yes, this Aryan humanity belongs to Samael, but is unfortnately polarized with the negative aspect of Samael-Mars, who is represented in Andrameleck, which acts through the liver in order to satisfy animality.

In the liver we find fear, terror, that is why one of the moons of Mars is called Phobos (from Greek φόβος) which means fear, terror. From that word Phobos comes the word φοβία phobia. There are many types of φοβία phobia related with the liver.

Indeed almost all of this entire humanity is pan-phobic, ultra-phobic, since all of us polarize with the negative aspect of φόβος Phobos, Mars, by means of a range of antagonistic psychological attitudes against the commandments of God.But, this Gnostic doctrine is teaching us how to polarize ourselves with the positive aspect of φόβος Phobos, the positive aspect of Mars which is Geburah, Geburah-El, Gabriel, and that ischastity. We want Geburah-El, the forces of Mars, to fecundate our own matter; or, in this case, our Mater, the virgin that eventually will appear if we raise up through the initiations. You might wonder, what is this positive aspect of φόβος Phobos? Well listen, the only positive φοβία phobia is the following:

“The beginning of wisdom is the fear (יראת Iroth; φόβος Phobos) of יהוה, and דעת Daath – the knowledge of the (קדשים Kadoshim) Holy Ones is (Binah) understanding.” - Proverbs 9: 10

All other phobias are animalistic, the only divine φοβία phobia is:

“(Rashyth ראשית) the beginning of wisdom is (φόβος Phobos) (יראת Iroth) fear of יהוה Jehovah: a good understanding (Binah) have all they that do his commandments: his praise endureth for ever.” - Psalm 111: 10

Behold, this is why the Greek word Tetragrammaton is written around the five pointed star, which has in the left side, or we can say left arm, the word Adam אדם, because Adam relates to the blood. Adam is the one that does the work of God in us, through the heart. The letter Aleph א is the same Alpha of the Greek alphabet.

The shape of the letter Aleph contains three letters: two Iods and one Vav. This symbolizes the Father-Son-Holy Spirit. If we observe the letter Alpha (A), we see that it also has three lines, united, forming the letter “A” of the five Alphas of the famous Pentalpha or Pentagram. These three lines of the “A” represent the Latin IAO, which is Jovis Pater, Jupiter.


This is why in the sign of Jupiter (♃) is on the top of the pentagram, where we find the awakened eyes, the eyes of the spirit, in other words, the eyes of Christ. The “A” is the Aleph, the wind, the air; that is why, when we physically perform the star of five points, we open our arms in order to show that the star of 5 points is the human being itself, the physical body, with two legs, two arms and one head. In order to attract the forces of the father or Aleph, of Jovis Pater, Jupiter, we make the first apex or vertex of the star, because we want the assistance of the cosmic Christ in ourselves.


If you observe the hands of the pentagram, both of them have the power, the sign, of Mars (♂), because Mars represents willpower, what in Greek is called “Thelema.” In order to do what we need to do in the heart, we need Thelema, we need willpower. That is why when we perform the sign of the pentagram we begin with our hands, because hand in Hebrew is “Yad,” a word which also symbolizes the sexual potency, which is Geburah, the power of Mars. We extend the hands up in order to point that everything that we are doing, we are doing with Thelema, with willpower, that is our motto. We unite our willpower with God, which is Jupiter, which is the Aleph; and, of course, that power come from the heart, from Daleth-Mem, Dam דם, “blood.”

When we lower the hands to our shoulders, that breath of God has descended into our lungs, and from there into our blood and we are then Adam; we are receiving the power of Adam, Iod-Hei-Vav-Hei or Adam Iod-Havah.

In other pentagrams, for instance, Eliphas Levi writes “Adam” on the left arm or Yad and “Chavah” on the right arm or Yad; he omits the Iod, and thus we read Adam-Chavah or Adam-Eve, which form the androgynous forces represented in the moon and the sun of the pentagram or five pointed star. This is Adam Iod-Hei-Vav-Hei, such as we pronounce it in the conjuration of the seven:

“…By the power of Adam and Eve, who are Iod-Chavah, begone Lilith! (the bile of the gall bladder) Let us rest in peace, Nahemah! (which is the spleen).”

We as animals tend to be lured by, enamored with the beauty of נחמד Nahemad, that is, by the solar light reflected by the moon, as Genesis states:

And out of the ground made יהוה אלהים Jehovah Elohim to grow every tree (including the human tree named physicality) that is pleasant to the sight.” - Genesis 2: 9

Remember that that solar light is always shown in the fruits and flowers, in the youth, in their physicality, because those hormones from the ovaries and testicles flow in the skin and that is why we have to know how to control the skin, control that light that shines in the flesh. But, everyone is enticed with that. We commit adultery with that because we covet the spouse of the neighbor, even if only with our sight. Master Jesus said:

Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's אשת Ashoth (feminine plural for sexual fire, this word relates alchemically to Malkuth, our physicality), But I say unto you, That whosoever looks on an אשה Ashah (helpmate pleasant to the sight) to lust after her (נחמה Nahemah) has committed adultery with her (נחמה Nahemah) already in the heart.” - Matthew 5: 27, 28

To covet an אשה Ashah (feminine sexual fire) with your sight alone is enough in order to commit adultery, because in that moment, we worship and idolize נחמה Nahemah, the lust inside of us, and thus commit adultery by taking that solar force for the satisfaction of our lust, our animality. Only Thelema can help us and that is why all of the signs-movements of the five pointed stars are made with the hands, Iod, Yad, Mars, willpower. First up we move them up, then down, extended, and then we make a crossing motion over our sexual organs, which are the Omega. That is the end of the journey of the solar force; the solar force ends its journey in the semen, sperm and ovum. That is why we cross our hands there. But, behold: in crossing our hands over our sex, it means that we have to learn the mystery of Daath; to have the will in order to transmute, to perform Alchemy from the sexual organs to Tiphereth, which is Nous, in the left ventricle of our heart. That is why the mystery of the transmutation is related to the two serpents or the caduceus of Mercury.

RSerpent of Brass

Now the (left) serpent was more subtle than all of the beasts of the field which Iod-Havah Elohim had made,” - Genesis 3: 1

The left serpent wished to accomplish his aim by first corrupting the brooklets below (sexual gonads) and making them impure and bitter, so that flowing back to the great ocean their fountain head, it might become polluted. This is why he first seduced Adam (the central nervous system) and brought death into the world and entered into the heart of Adam from the left side.

"There is, however, another serpent that comes from the right. These two serpents are they that are closely attached to Adam (the central nervous system) during his lifetime (the astral fluid Od and animal nature Ob), as scripture said, 'of all the beasts of the field that Iod-Havah Elohim had made,' these two are the most cunning, crafty and subtle in tempting and destroying Adam (the central nervous system). Woe unto him who allows himself to be led on and seduced by the (נחשים השרפים Nahashim Seraphim) the fiery serpents, for (the second) death irretrievable is his doom, physically, morally and spiritually, both to himself and to those associated with him, as in the case of Adam (the central nervous system) who wished to know and become expert in nature's secrets and occult science. In revealing them and exciting within him a fictitious joy and happiness, the serpent acquired that influence and control over Adam (the central nervous system) that contributed to and brought his ruin and downfall (from bliss-Eden) and thus caused him to suffer, as also his successors.” - Zohar

And אד Od goes up from (Geburah and descends to) the earth, and has watered the whole face of האדמה HaAdamah, the ground (our physicality).” - Genesis 2: 6

And the sons of Noah (the atom Nous in the heart), that went forth of the ark, were Shem (Hod, astral body), and Ham (Netzach, mental body), and Japheth (Tiphereth, causal body): and Ham (the mind) is אב Ob the father (in the brain) of Canaan (the spinal medulla).” Genesis 9: 18

Many disciples of our Gnostic movement might receive the news as unexpected and unusual that although Pingala (Od) is of a strictly solar nature, Pingala really emerges from the left testicle. Nevertheless, we should not be surprised, because everything in nature is based on the law of polarities. The right testicle finds its exact antipode in the left nasal cavity, as has already been demonstrated. The left testicle finds its perfect antipode in the right nasal cavity and obviously this is the way it must be.

Esoteric physiology teaches us that in the feminine sex the two witnesses emerge from the ovaries. It is unquestionable that within women the order of these two olive trees of the temple is harmoniously reversed.

Old traditions which surge forth from within the profound night of all ages state that when the solar and lunar atoms of the seminal system make contact in the Triveni close to the coccyx, then as a simple electric induction a third force awakens; I mean the marvelous fire of love (the שכינה Shekhinah) awakens.” - Samael Aun Weor

The first serpent in the right is called אד Od, the second on the left is called אב Ob. In India, Ida and Pingala. The two polarities. The moon and the sun. The solar atoms and the lunar atoms. The solar atoms are related with Od, the serpent that rises on the right. Unfortunately, the serpent that gives us light with the solar energy, the prana that goes into our flesh and into our organs, into the flower, into the fruit, and we look at it and we get enticed. It is written that God made every tree pleasant to the sight. We have to learn how to transform impressions, to transform the solar light for the spirit, in order not to commit adultery. When we look at a flower, a fruit, a woman, or a woman a man, and like him or her, immediately, we want to satisfy the lust, to commit adultery, with that marvelous light of the divine mother, Adonia אדני. We want to commit incest. We have to transform that. In order to do that we need willpower. The power of Samael-mars.

If we allow Andramelech, the negative ray of Samael to control us, then we end spilling our seed, masturbating, and ejaculating, the sexual force, in order to satisfy the animal within. Then we forget about the Tree of Alchemy, the Tree of Good and Evil. Of course, the serpent which is lunar, the left serpent, is more dangerous than the one on the right, because that serpent is related with Eve, with the mechanicity of the moon; it is Nahemah, in the positive aspect, but in the negative it is called Lilith.

Lilith is precisely the one who fornicated with Adam and created the Kundabuffer organ. The evil consequences of that organ are inside of us in our psyche. We have to stop being an animal by transmuting the sexual energy in order for those serpents to stand up-right in the caduceus of Mercury. And that is what the pentagram is showing us. In order to develop the forces of God within, we need to take his force, which is the creative energy in the sexual organs, up to the heart. That is the sign that you see because the wings of the spirit, those wings that the angel develops, are related with chastity.

Alchemical Tetragram2

As we explained, the four creatures that we need to control are in symbols in the middle of the pentagram, they represent the beasts of the field which Iod-Havah Elohim had made.

  • Gabriel is the Moon, the Man
  • Michael is the Sun, the Winged Lion
  • Raphael is Mercury, the Eagle
  • Uriel or Anael is Venus, the Winged Bull, the forces of love within

So when we name these four angels in the conjuration of the four:

Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Anael! Fluat udor per Spiritum Elohim!

We ask them to flow their essences or spirits by the power of the Elohim, inside our central nervous system. Then we perform Alchemy, the transmutation. That is why you find that Adam Iod-Chavah, is written upon the arms, because they represent the superior forces of God that have to control the forces of the star of David, related with the four elements, in order for us to develop all the symbols.

chaliceThe cup above אדם Adam, on the left side of the pentagram, symbolizes the brain, the mind, that we must fill with theאד Od, that rises from Adonia אדני, the חוה Chavah, sexual feminine organ.


The staff on the left side of the Pentagram, is the staff of the patriarchs, the spinal medulla, the rod of Aaron, the נחש נחשת Nahash Nahashoth, that Moses made by command of Jehovah. As it is written:

"Make for thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a pole: and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he looks upon it, shall live." - Numbers 21: 8


The sword in the very bottom is showing us that, in order to create the flaming sword we need to rise the energy in the middle. If you do not rise your יד Iod, better said, your ידים Yadim, hands, willpower, up to the heart, that sword does not develop.


Excalibur, the sword that comes from the stone of Yesod, from Mother Nature, is the energy, the נחש נחשת Nahash Nahashoth, the שכינה Shekhinah, the solar force called Kundalini that rises in the spinal medulla.

saturnThere is something that you have to understand: in the very feet of the pentagram you find the signs of Saturn (♄). Saturn symbolizes the Earth; how do the forces of Saturn descend to the feet of the pentagram?, they descend through Geburah, the hands of Mars-Thelema, we bring the forces of Saturn-Binah, the Father, from above down to the Earth, when we cross the ידים Yadim, arms and hands over the sexual organs. When we do that, we are uniting the ens virtutis, the spirit, with the soul within the ens seminis, seed of the earth. This is how I, the soul, and the Father, the spirit become one. We read in the Bible:

“I and my Father are one.”- John 10: 30 “

"I and my Father are one,” when addressing the Father we are addressing God. Who is God? God is יהוה Iod-Hei-Vav-Hei in Binah. Who is I in Hebrew,? “I” is “אני Ani,” that is written with three letters, Aleph-Nun-Yod, אני Ani. If we add the letter ד Daleth (which value is four, the יהוה tetragrammaton) in the middle of “Ani”, we form the word אדני Adoni or Adonai. So this אני Ani, is אדני Adonai-Malkuth, within which “I” and “the Father” are one. When Adonai-Malkuth is one with Jehovah-Binah, such a person is a prophet; one whose soul is united with the holy spirit. “I and the Father are one.” Unfortunately, we have separated the I from the Father, because this “I” is the psychological “I” that satisfies lust and animality, and therefore is not worshiping the Father-Binah, יהוה Iod-Hei-Vav-Hei. Rather, we are worshiping an idol, worshiping something inside of us through the sexual satisfaction, or through anger, or through coveting. This is what you have to understand when you see in the pentagram, the Saturn symbol of Alchemy that we are showing you in this picture. .

In the left side, you find the word Pechad (פחד), which means fear. We spoke about fear, we said it was related with the liver. Fear is related with justice. In the pentagram you also see the word Kaphar (כפר), which means expiation. This is realted with the opposite of Geburah, which is Chesed, mercy. Pechad is Geburah and Kaphar is Chesed, expiation; or, as we say, mercy and justice, which are the two sides, right and left. From the Invocation of Solomon:

Mercy and Justice be Ye the equilibrium and Splendor of my life.

When you work with your heart, it is from your heart that you are saying that. When you are saying that, remember these two Hebrew words and the pentagram, which point you to the belly; the right side of the belly and the left side of the belly, Pachad and Kaphar. There are two verses in the Bible, in the book of Deuteronomy that speaks about this:

Be merciful, Iod-Chavah, unto thy (archetypes) people Israel, whom thou hast redeemed, and lay not innocent blood unto thy people of Israel's charge. And the blood shall be forgiven them.” Deuteronomy 21:8

This is of course how it is translated in the Bible, but the real translation, kabbalistically speaking, includes Kaphar, which is that which is to the right, Chesed, mercy. That is why is says be merciful. But in order for God to be merciful with you, you need to expiate. If you do not annihilate the elements within you that create karma, your God cannot be merciful with you. That is why the correct translation should be like this:

Expiate thy people Israel whom thou hast redeemed, Iod-Chavah and let not innocent suffer in the mist of thy people Israel, and let the blood atoned them.

In Hebrew the word atoned is כפר Kaphar, to expiate. כפר Kaphar is written in one of the legs, but really it is one of the sides of the pentagram which is related with the work of your superior spirit, because when you work with God, he helps you to expiate. Remember that the Lord Christ incarnates in the initiate, in order to help him to expiate what he owes. There are different ways to expiate or pay what we owe.

The third factor of the revolution of the consciousness involves being charitable to others, which is a way that we pay a lot of karma. But, to expiate a sin, we need to do not only that, we need to comprehend the ego, we need to annihilate the ego related with that particular karma. In order to expiate, we need to be in chastity, we need to be faithful to our Divine Mother through the three factors of the revolution of the consciousness. We need to be merciful with the people of Israel, which are the spiritual values or archetypes that we have within. That is why Deuteronomy 21:8 should really say “expiate thy people Israel.”

How does God expiate the people of Israel, in relation with the heart? By working with the blood, by working with Alchemy. Why do we say here “blood”? What is the innocent blood? That is the solar light, the force, the vitamins that we have in the physical body and the forces of our own soul. That is innocent; but the polluted blood that is related with the liver, related with anger, pride, with lust, with vanity, with gluttony, with laziness, that is polluted blood. That is not innocent, they deserve to die! So therefore, we need the psychological death in order for God to be merciful with us, because mercy comes when we are doing something positive for ourselves and humanity. But if we are asking for mercy and meanwhile we do not meditate, we do not comprehend our egos related with our karma, we do not suffer for humanity, in order to be charitable to help others, but keep asking, asking and asking, and never give, what can we expect in return from God? Why would we expect God to be merciful with us? We need to give in order to receive. That is כפר Kaphar, expiation.

There are, for instance, people from Tibet: they prostrate and stretch their body and stand again repeatedly walk miles and miles and miles until reaching the temple. That type of suffering, that is expiation. In performing these actions, they are killing something, a part of themselves, but the best way to perform expiation is to sacrifice yourself for humanity, helping your neighbors, giving food to the one that is hungry, water to the one that is thirsty, clothes to the one that is naked. That is expiation. It is not just believing in God or saying “I believe in God, I belong to this group, read the Bible, etc. and therefor God will be merciful with me because I believe in Jesus.” No: כפר Kaphar, expiation, does not work in that way.

So of course, in the other side of the pentagram we find fear, פחד Pechad.

There shall no (איש eish) man be able to stand before you: for the Iod-Chavah your Elohim shall lay the (פחד pechad) fear of you and the (מורא mowra) dread of you upon all the land that ye shall tread upon, as he has said unto you.” Deuteronomy 11:25

The translation should be “no (איש Esh) man will stand in your presence, your dread (מורא mowra) and your fear (פחד pechad), do Iod-Chavah, your Elohim, will put on the face of all the land of which you tread, as he has spoken unto you.”

When you walk on the path of the self realization, you are placing on your own land—your own body, your own Adamah—the strength, the will of God, which is fear, terror, for the ego. This is why, when you observe the pentagram, you find the symbol of פחד Pechad (fear), and you find the moon, because those lunar aggregates, defects, errors, vices, that we have, are afraid of the pentagram.

The pentagram symbolizes all the strength of God in one sign; it is a very powerful talisman. But Master Samael Aun Weor states that we have to make of ourselves a living pentagram. When you work in your self, and you walk on your own land, and annihilate the ego, and transmute your sexual force, and work for God, you then accumulate a lot of strength, a lot of willpower, solar force, then your enemies are afraid of you. But your enemies are not your neighbor. Remember that. People have very shallow minds and think that all the enemies of the Lord are the enemies of this or that race or religion. No. The enemies of the Lord are within you. They are within us. Our defects, vices, errors, lust, pride, anger, etc. All of those negative elements are afraid when we are accumulating light; this is how we start following the path, working with Michael in order to defeat the dragon. That is the fear (פחד Pechad) that you feel related with the moon. And of course, there is also expiation, because we have to have mercy and justice on each side. When you walk with your two feet, you are working with mercy and justice in the equilibrium and, “splendor of our life.” From the Invocation of Solomon:

Mercy and Justice be Ye the equilibrium and Splendor of my life.

This is our work, the psychological work the we perform and this is precisely the mystery of יהוה, the Tetragrammaton. It is not as many esotericists think, that the name in the left arm should be אדני Adonai, even though אדני Adonai, Lord, is a Tetragrammaton. Adonai אדני, is feminine, and represents Malkuth, below. The star is אדם יהוה Adam Iod-Chavah, who is the one that fecundates Adonia אדני (Malkuth), which is represented in the 4 creatures or four rivers of Eden which are represented in the male and female alchemists. As it is written:

“And יהוה אלהים Jehovah Elohim took Adam, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. And יהוה אלהים Jehovah Elohim commanded Adam, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it (like a beast): for in the day that thou eatest thereof (like a beast) thou shalt surely die.” - Genesis 2: 15-17

"And יהוה אלהים Jehovah Elohim took Adam, and put him into the Garden of Eden" (Genesis 2:15). From where did He take him? He took him from the four elements, as it is written: "ומשם And from Shem שם name (יהוה Iod-Havah in Daath) it was parted, and branched into four streams" (Genesis 2: 10), יהוה אלהים Jehovah Elohim detached Adam from (יהוה Iod-Havah in Daath) these four elements (of the Tetragrammaton) and put him into (Yesod-Malkuth) the Garden of Eden." - Zohar

Adam Iod-Chavah אדם יהוה is the star that the 3 wisemen follow. Therefore, in the name of אדם יהוה Adam Iod-Chavah we exert control over the four elements within ourselves, because this descending virile force of Geburah, the male force of Mars, represented in the arms, is named Geburah-El, Gabriel in Yesod. Gabriel is the one that stands in the presence of God and announces to Mary:

“Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women.... And, behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name Jesus,” - Luke 1: 28, 31

Jesus is the Christ because Gabriel is Geburah-El, the virility of God that through chastity will fecundate the womb of Mary according to the ens virtutis, the Holy Spirit which is above Geburah. Geburah is below the Holy Spirit, Binah. Geburah is the 5th, the power, the virile man, Geburah-El that descends into Yesod and announces to Malkuth, which is Adonia אדני, the Virgin Mary. This is precisely the mystery of the Immaculate Conception; of how she, Malkuth is receiving the forces of יהוה אלהים Jehovah Elohim, through the male forces of Gabriel, Geburah-El or Elohim Gibor, in her because she is the feminine, she is Adonia אדני, Adonia, my goddess that is engendered by Geburah. That is why we say in the conjuration of the seven:

In the name of Gabriel, may Adonai command thee, and drive thee hence, Bael!

Who is Bael? Bael represents all the garbage that we have that we call Baalim. Baalim are all the vices, defects, errors, or Klipoth, which are underneath the layer of Adonai (the divine Mother Nature). “In the name of Gabriel, may Adonai command thee, and drive thee hence, Baalim, Bael”; all those demons in hell that dwell within us! We are conjuring something that is inside of us, and when we do that, when we accomplish that, we conjure that which is outside, bear that in mind.

In the conjuration of the four, you name two serpents. The first you say:

Caput mortum, imperet tibi dominus per vivum et devotum serpentem!

“Dead head may Adonai (Hebrew Lord, which is Dominus in Latin) command thee by the living and devoted serpent.” The words, “per vivum et devotum serpentem” means by the living and devoted serpent. Here we are talking about Od, the serpent of light. Chaiah (life) is the serpent Od, the solar force that we see in the flower, in the fruit, that we see everywhere in nature. That is solar energy. Remember that the Lord says “I am the light of the world!” That light of the world, that Christ, is precisely that “vivum” or living and devoted serpent of light. But we should learn not to adulterate with it. Do not get enticed by the pleasantness of the sight of that serpent which is in every human organism, every flower and tree, and any animal that you enjoy when you see how beautiful they are. Look at a peacock, a peacock with all that beauty that has all the solar light shining through him. When you are healthy, it is because the vitamins of that solar force, that is the living and devoted serpent that we have to take advantage of. The other one, the serpent the writhes, that is said in the conjuration of the seven:

Writhing serpent, crawl at my feet, or be tortured by the sacred fire and give way before the perfumes that I burn in it!

The Writhing serpent is the other serpent. The one that is cursed; Genesis states:

“Because you have done this (committed fornication), cursed are you above all בהמה Behemah, and above every חית Chaioth of the field. On your belly shall you go, and you shall eat dust all the days of your life.” - Genesis 3: 14

The writhing serpent is the serpent of lust. The serpent that entices all the human beings in this planet. The serpent that we have to control with “the perfumes that I burn in it.” What perfumes? The same perfumes that are described in the following Latin instance:

Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Anael! Fluat udor per Spiritum Elohim! Manet in terra per Adam Yod-HaVah!

Fluat udor per Spiritum Elohim! Let the perfume flow by the Ruach Elohim or by the Spirit of God.

In English:

Flow perfume, by the רוח אלהים Ruach Elohim.

When you transmute, that perfume flows as it does in the plants or flowers. Transmute the sexual force. When you go inside in the 4th dimension, then you discover that every single elemental or soul of every planet performs the sexual act, but without spilling the energy. All the souls of the plants transmute the sexual energy, that is why their sexual organ smells nice. When you are smelling a flower, that is the sexual organ of the flower, of that rose, etc. When you are smelling a fruit from a tree, that is the sexual energy of the tree. And that is precisely the sexual organ of the planet. That is what we say the perfume flows.

Manet in terra per Adam Yod-HaVah!

Let remain in the earth-Malkuth, the physicality, by אדם יהוה Adam Iod-Hei-Vav-Hei, that is, Adam Iod-Havah!

There are saints who died and it was said that their bodies smelt of perfume, because they were not fornicators; they were developing chastity and annihilating through the expiation of the ego of lust. Therefore, that perfume must flow from the sex up to the head. When we know Alchemy, “the writhing serpent shall be crawling at my feet,” and thus we control it. That lustful serpent that everybody has within, “by the perfumes burnt in it,” in the sexual act, “let the writhing serpent be tortured!” This is what we have to do. This is precisely the great work of Alchemy that we perform through the mystery of יהוה, the Tetragrammaton, the Holy name of God.


"When we are in the physical world, we must learn to be awake from moment to moment. We then live awakened and self-conscious from moment to moment in the internal worlds, both during the hours of the sleep of the physical body and also after death."